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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Desjarlais, M. P.; Knudson, M. D.; Redmer, R.;

    Recent dynamic compression experiments [M. D. Knudson et al., Science 348, 1455 (2015); P. M. Celliers et al., Science 361, 677 (2018)] have observed the insulator-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium, but with an approximately 95 GPa difference in the quoted pressures for the transition at comparable estimated temperatures. It was claimed in the latter of these two papers that a very large latent heat effect on the temperature was overlooked in the first, requiring correction of those temperatures downward by a factor of two, thereby putting both experiments on the same theoretical phase boundary and reconciling the pressure discrepancy. We have performed extensive path-integral molecular dynamics calculations with density functional theory to directly calculate the isentropic temperature drop due to latent heat in the insulator-metal transition for dense liquid deuterium and show that this large temperature drop is not consistent with the underlying thermodynamics. Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2019
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2019
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: F. Ritz; C. Stäcker; Tilmann Beck; Manuela Sander;

    AbstractThe aim of the present work is to clarify the fine granular area (FGA) formation mechanism in two steels (tempered 34CrNiMo6 and X10CrNiMoV12‐2‐2) causing grain refinement in the early state of fatigue for internal crack initiation and propagation in the very high cycle fatigue regime at pure tension‐compression loading (R = −1) and for applied mean stresses (R ≠ −1). Fatigue tests were performed with constant and variable amplitude at several R values using ultrasonic fatigue testing setups. Failed specimens were investigated using high‐resolution scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam technique with special attention paid to the crack origin and the surrounding microstructure. To prove models for FGA formation proposed in literature, a numerical model to evaluate effective R values and contact stresses between the fracture surfaces depending on the crack length has been realised. The aim of these investigations is to estimate the influence of crack closure effects on FGA formation. FGA formation due to repeating contact of the fracture surfaces according to the model postulated by Hong et al correlates well with the findings for numerical simulations.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fatigue & Fracture o...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fatigue & Fracture o...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Leonidas P. Economou; Dionyssios P. Lykouressis; Afroditi E. Barbetaki;

    Abstract Plant glandular trichomes can confer protection from herbivores, but may also affect natural enemies. We studied time allocation of activities (inactive, moving, probing, feeding, and grooming) of nymphs of the predatory bugs Macrolophus pygmaeus and Orius niger on the upper surface of tomato leaflets from the cultivars Dombito, Elxis, and H30. In H30, which had the highest density of type VI glandular trichomes on the upper surface, both insects spent more time in grooming their tarsi and rostrum than the other two cultivars. In Dombito and Elxis, which have trichome densities that didn’t differ much, no significant differences were observed in time allocation of activities for both insects. When averaged across cultivars, younger instars of M. pygmaeus spent less time on probing and more time on grooming, whereas for O. niger, the nymphs of first stage spent more time on grooming and less on movement than the nymphs of older stages. Between species, O. niger first instars groomed more and walke...

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Engelmann, David; Mayoli-Nüssle, Deborah; Mayrhofer, Christian; Fürst, Katharina; +7 Authors

    Angiogenesis is essential for primary tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. E2F1, frequently upregulated in advanced cancers, was recently shown to drive malignant progression. In an attempt to decipher the molecular events underlying this behavior, we demonstrate that the tumor cell-associated vascular endothelial growth factor-C/receptor-3 (VEGF-C/VEGFR-3) axis is controlled by E2F1. Activation or forced expression of E2F1 in cancer cells leads to the upregulation of VEGFR-3 and its ligand VEGF-C, whereas E2F1 depletion prevents their expression. E2F1-dependent receptor induction is crucial for tumor cells to enhance formation of capillary tubes and neovascularization in mice. We further provide evidence for a positive feedback loop between E2F1 and VEGFR-3 signaling to stimulate pro-angiogenic platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B). E2F1 or VEGFR-3 knockdown results in reduced PDGF-B levels, while the coexpression synergistically upregulates promoter activity and endogenous protein expression of PDGF-B. Our findings delineate an as yet unrecognized function of E2F1 as enhancer of angiogenesis via regulation of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling in tumors to cooperatively activate PDGF-B expression. Targeting this pathway might be reasonable to complement standard anti-angiogenic treatment of cancers with deregulated E2F1.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2013
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    Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2013
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      Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brazdeikienė, Liana; Zukhbaya, Natalia; Petraitienė, Ulijana;

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of canine therapy with children with special educational needs is presented in this article. Canine therapy sessions were carried out in two groups of participants. The 1st group consisted from children with behavioural-emotional problems, the second group – consisted from children who have disability of intelligence and have diagnosis confirmed by physicians. The qualitative and quantitative analysis confirmed positive social, emotional, psychological and educational changes in both groups of children. Relatively greater changes are observed in the group of children with disability of intelligence. The parents of first group of children evaluated their behavioural-emotional difficulties before and after canine therapy sessions. There were no significant differences in mothers scores of children behavioural-emotional difficulties before and after canine therapy sessions, fathers’ scores of behavioral-emotional difficulties of children are lower after canine therapy sessions, and significantly lower are scores of anxiety / depression difficulties after canine therapy sessions.KEY WORDS: canine therapy, Animal assisted therapy, special educational needs, behavioural-emotional difficulties.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Virtual Library of K...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Efthymia Giosa; Christos Mammides; Savvas Zotos;

    The degradation of natural wetlands has significant effects on the ecosystem services they provide and the biodiversity they sustain. Under certain conditions, these negative effects can be mitigated by the presence of artificial wetlands. However, the conservation value of artificial wetlands needs to be explored further. In addition, it is unclear how certain anthropogenic variables, such as road networks and hunting reserves (i.e., areas where hunting of birds is prohibited) affect biodiversity in both artificial and natural wetlands. Here, we use data from thirteen artificial and six natural wetlands in Cyprus, to assess their similarities in bird species diversity and composition, and to quantify the relationship between species diversity and the density of road networks, hunting reserves, wetland size, and wetland depth. We found that while on average natural wetlands have more species and support higher abundances, certain artificial wetlands have the potential to support similarly diverse communities. Overall, regardless of the type, larger wetlands, with shallower waters tend to be more biodiverse. The same is true for wetlands surrounded by a higher percentage of hunting reserves and a lower density of road networks, albeit the effect of road networks was weaker. We conclude, from our results, that although the conservation value of natural wetlands is higher, artificial wetlands have the potential to play a complimentary role in the conservation of bird communities, assuming those wetlands have the right characteristics (e.g., in terms of size and depth) and assuming that the disturbances resulting from high-impact human-activities (e.g., hunting) are minimized.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2018
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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      PLoS ONE
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Spyridon, Ntougias; Constantinos, Fasseas; Georgios I, Zervakis;

    A novel, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-sporulating, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a viscous two-phase olive-oil mill waste (‘alpeorujo’) is described. The strain, designated AW-6T, is an obligate aerobe, forming irregular, pigmented creamy white colonies. The pH and temperature ranges for growth were pH 5–8 and 5–45 °C, with optimal pH and temperature for growth of pH 6–7 and 28–32 °C, respectively. Strain AW-6T was chemo-organotrophic and utilized mostly d(+)-glucose, protocatechuate and d(+)-xylose, followed by l-cysteine, d(−)-fructose, d(+)-galactose, l-histidine, lactose, sorbitol and sucrose. Menaquinone-7 was detected in the respiratory chain of strain AW-6T. The major fatty acids of strain AW-6T were C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 0. The closest phylogenetic relative of strain AW-6T was clone BIti35 (89.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), while Sphingobacterium thalpophilum DSM 11723T was the closest recognized relative within the Sphingobacteriaceae (88.2 % similarity). Strain AW-6T showed a low level of DNA–DNA relatedness to S. thalpophilum DSM 11723T (33.8–37.0 %). The DNA G+C content of strain AW-6T was 45.6 mol%. Physiological and chemotaxonomic data further confirmed the distinctiveness of strain AW-6T from members of the genera Sphingobacterium and Pedobacter. Thus, strain AW-6T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus within the family Sphingobacteriaceae, for which the name Olivibacter sitiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AW-6T (=DSM 17696T=CECT 7133T).

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  • Authors: Harald Weber; F. Prillwitz;

    In hydro power plants of Macedonia (FYROM) and Yugoslavia (YU) there is a very high interest in investigations concerning the static and dynamic behaviour of the units for the most frequent events that could occur. This contribution presents the most important steps for the reality oriented creation of mathematical models of hydro power plants which can be used for such investigations. Therefore in the investigated hydro power plants "Vrutok" (FYROM), "Zvornik" (YU), "Tikves" (FYROM) and "Bajina Basta" (YU) measurements were performed to obtain step response time signals of all important functional parts of the plants to be able to identify the most important parameters of the mathematical model. Using the least-square-method with the Matlab-software it was possible to identify all the necessary parameters of the mathematical models. Using the same measured input signals the response from the developed mathematical models show nearly the same behaviour as the real power plants.

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    Authors: Stefan Kalies; Sebastian Keil; Sina Sender; Susanne Conradine Hammer; +6 Authors

    Laser-based transfection techniques have proven high applicability in several cell biologic applications. The delivery of different molecules using these techniques has been extensively investigated. In particular, new high-throughput approaches such as gold nanoparticle–mediated laser transfection allow efficient delivery of antisense molecules or proteins into cells preserving high cell viabilities. However, the cellular response to the perforation procedure is not well understood. We herein analyzed the perforation kinetics of single cells during resonant gold nanoparticle–mediated laser manipulation with an 850-ps laser system at a wavelength of 532 nm. Inflow velocity of propidium iodide into manipulated cells reached a maximum within a few seconds. Experiments based on the inflow of FM4-64 indicated that the membrane remains permeable for a few minutes for small molecules. To further characterize the cellular response postmanipulation, we analyzed levels of oxidative heat or general stress. Although we observed an increased formation of reactive oxygen species by an increase of dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, heat shock protein 70 was not upregulated in laser-treated cells. Additionally, no evidence of stress granule formation was visible by immunofluorescence staining. The data provided in this study help to identify the cellular reactions to gold nanoparticle–mediated laser manipulation.

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    Journal of Biomedical Optics
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Biomedical Optics
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Demetres Briassoulis; Antonis Mistriotis; D. Eleftherakis;

    Agricultural nets are extensively used in certain types of cultivation, such as fruit-tree farming, for protection against birds and insects as well as anti-hail and anti-frost shields or windbreaks. However, the design, quality assessment and use of the agricultural nets are more or less empirical. In the present paper, the most critical properties of the nets with regard to the agricultural applications are determined. Proper evaluation schemes for the most critical mechanical properties of permeable materials, directly related to the needs of the specific agricultural applications, are established. The results of the adaptation of existing testing methods designed for measuring selected mechanical properties of agricultural nets are presented along with specific technical recommendations. This pre-normative research work may support future co-normative work for the establishment of European standards for measuring the mechanical properties of agricultural nets.

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    Polymer Testing
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Polymer Testing
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Desjarlais, M. P.; Knudson, M. D.; Redmer, R.;

    Recent dynamic compression experiments [M. D. Knudson et al., Science 348, 1455 (2015); P. M. Celliers et al., Science 361, 677 (2018)] have observed the insulator-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium, but with an approximately 95 GPa difference in the quoted pressures for the transition at comparable estimated temperatures. It was claimed in the latter of these two papers that a very large latent heat effect on the temperature was overlooked in the first, requiring correction of those temperatures downward by a factor of two, thereby putting both experiments on the same theoretical phase boundary and reconciling the pressure discrepancy. We have performed extensive path-integral molecular dynamics calculations with density functional theory to directly calculate the isentropic temperature drop due to latent heat in the insulator-metal transition for dense liquid deuterium and show that this large temperature drop is not consistent with the underlying thermodynamics. Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2019
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: F. Ritz; C. Stäcker; Tilmann Beck; Manuela Sander;

    AbstractThe aim of the present work is to clarify the fine granular area (FGA) formation mechanism in two steels (tempered 34CrNiMo6 and X10CrNiMoV12‐2‐2) causing grain refinement in the early state of fatigue for internal crack initiation and propagation in the very high cycle fatigue regime at pure tension‐compression loading (R = −1) and for applied mean stresses (R ≠ −1). Fatigue tests were performed with constant and variable amplitude at several R values using ultrasonic fatigue testing setups. Failed specimens were investigated using high‐resolution scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam technique with special attention paid to the crack origin and the surrounding microstructure. To prove models for FGA formation proposed in literature, a numerical model to evaluate effective R values and contact stresses between the fracture surfaces depending on the crack length has been realised. The aim of these investigations is to estimate the influence of crack closure effects on FGA formation. FGA formation due to repeating contact of the fracture surfaces according to the model postulated by Hong et al correlates well with the findings for numerical simulations.

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    Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Leonidas P. Economou; Dionyssios P. Lykouressis; Afroditi E. Barbetaki;

    Abstract Plant glandular trichomes can confer protection from herbivores, but may also affect natural enemies. We studied time allocation of activities (inactive, moving, probing, feeding, and grooming) of nymphs of the predatory bugs Macrolophus pygmaeus and Orius niger on the upper surface of tomato leaflets from the cultivars Dombito, Elxis, and H30. In H30, which had the highest density of type VI glandular trichomes on the upper surface, both insects spent more time in grooming their tarsi and rostrum than the other two cultivars. In Dombito and Elxis, which have trichome densities that didn’t differ much, no significant differences were observed in time allocation of activities for both insects. When averaged across cultivars, younger instars of M. pygmaeus spent less time on probing and more time on grooming, whereas for O. niger, the nymphs of first stage spent more time on grooming and less on movement than the nymphs of older stages. Between species, O. niger first instars groomed more and walke...

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    Authors: Engelmann, David; Mayoli-Nüssle, Deborah; Mayrhofer, Christian; Fürst, Katharina; +7 Authors

    Angiogenesis is essential for primary tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. E2F1, frequently upregulated in advanced cancers, was recently shown to drive malignant progression. In an attempt to decipher the molecular events underlying this behavior, we demonstrate that the tumor cell-associated vascular endothelial growth factor-C/receptor-3 (VEGF-C/VEGFR-3) axis is controlled by E2F1. Activation or forced expression of E2F1 in cancer cells leads to the upregulation of VEGFR-3 and its ligand VEGF-C, whereas E2F1 depletion prevents their expression. E2F1-dependent receptor induction is crucial for tumor cells to enhance formation of capillary tubes and neovascularization in mice. We further provide evidence for a positive feedback loop between E2F1 and VEGFR-3 signaling to stimulate pro-angiogenic platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B). E2F1 or VEGFR-3 knockdown results in reduced PDGF-B levels, while the coexpression synergistically upregulates promoter activity and endogenous protein expression of PDGF-B. Our findings delineate an as yet unrecognized function of E2F1 as enhancer of angiogenesis via regulation of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling in tumors to cooperatively activate PDGF-B expression. Targeting this pathway might be reasonable to complement standard anti-angiogenic treatment of cancers with deregulated E2F1.

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    Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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